Module package AD 2000 / section S




The AD 2000 bulletins series S apply for the design of pressure vessels under static and fatigue loading. The bulletin AD S1 offers a simplified method for the design of pressurized components under varying pressure. A more detailed fatigue design for varying pressure, temperature differences or additional external forces and moments can be accomplished using AD-S2. The bulletins S3/0 to S3/5 apply for vessel support design. AD S3/6 serves the calculation of local stress in the vessel wall in the region of nozzles by additional external loads.

Additional information about further calculations, help and hints and deficiencies in the Merkblaetter (working sheets) can be displayed dynamically by pressing the 'Info Button'. Calculation documentation is done analogically to DIN EN European Standards.


Please find individual modules which are not listed in this overview in the alphabetical module list.

Interfaces to CAD systems on request.


Module Description  

Project sheet

The Project module summarizes operational and test data, as well as the main parts of a pressure vessel including main geometrical data and used material in one working sheet.

For the final calculation, the specified modules are adjusted and their data are connected to the working sheet.



(Material data base)

Selection and documentation of materials for the design of pressure vessels

The program determines the allowable material properties dependent on temperature, workpiece geometry, regulation standard and delivery standard. All values are displayed on screen and may be printed, copied into the clipboard, saved as a file (e.g. for further processing in Microsoft WORD) or forwarded to any of our calculation modules like AD 2000 / ASME / TRD / European Standard (EN) calculation program.

The database is bilingual. You can switch from German to English and vice versa.


Simplified proof against oscillating stress

Material fatigue must be considered for pulsating loading of steels with high yield stress. The number of the expected pressure oscillations must not exceed the allowable number of load cycles.

The S1 module determines the allowable number of stress cycles under consideration of the pressure, temperature and design factors.




Proof against oscillating stress

For temperature variation of the loading (oscillating stress), caused by internal pressure, temperature differences or additional forces and moments, a failure by crack initiation must be excluded.

The S2 module provides the following options:

  1. Calculation of the authoritative equivalent stress range in the plastically stressed region according to AD - 2000 S2 / section 6
  2. Calculation of the allowable stress range for a known number of load cycles on welded and seamless components according to AD - 2000 S2 / section 7.1 and 7.2
  3. Calculation of the allowable number of load cycles for a known cyclic stress range on welded and seamless construction subregions according to AD - 2000 S2 / section 8.1 and 8.2



Allowable stresses

The module S3.0 provides the strength proof of pressure vessels on the base of equivalent stresses according to the AD 2000 -Merkblatt / S3.0. It includes a material data base for the determination of the design strength value and the safety factor. For the application of the limit analysis or the shakedown analysis, selection criteria are given.





Vessels on support skirts

The general stability proof can be performed with the module S3.1. The support skirt connection is possible at the cylinder (slip-on support or ring support) or in the knuckle area (torispherical end or semi-ellipsoidal end). The support skirt can be made of one or two opposite segments and can be anchored in the foundation by a simple base ring or a double ring.




Horizontal vessels on saddles

The module S3.2 determines the longitudinal, circumferential, and shear stresses in the critical cross section of horizontal vessels on saddles. The vessel can be reinforced by internal or external support rings or built on a support ring with saddles.

The EN 16.14 module (global loads on cylindrical shells) is delivered as supplement.




Vessels with dished ends on support feet

The general stability proof of vessels with dished ends on support feet can be performed with the module S3.3. The support feet can be fixed on the ground with or without reinforcing pads and anchored on quadratic or circular foundations.




Vessels with bracket supports

The general stability proof of vessels with bracket supports can be performed with the module S3.4. Furthermore, the calculation of vessel walls can generally be used for the assessment of additional forces on vessel walls without openings. At the bracket support, the support plate, ligament plate and plate stiffener are calculated. The required root diameter for the anchor bolts is determined.

Additionally to S3.4 you may want to use the PRAT module




Vessels with ring support

This AD 200 Merkblatt serves for the calculation of ring girders and ring supports. The program calculates the allowable stress resultants of the ring for all relevant load cases.

Using the received result data, a global and local strength proof of the ring is calculated. A strength proof of the welded seams for the connection of vessel and ring is carried out.




Calculation of vessels with nozzles under additional load

The following calculations can be carried out with the program:

  • Determination of a fictitious spare strength for additional loads of nozzles.
  • Check of the conditions under which the stress analysis is permissible according to the methods in the AD-Merkblatt S3.6, section 4.

The module S3.6 contains an approximation equation for the curves indicated by Bickell, M. B. and C. Ruiz for the stress intensification by pressurizing.





Calculation of Local Stresses at the Nozzle Area by using the Finite Element Method

Some problems in pressure vessel design cannot or only insufficiently be solved by using the standard equations of the according code. With these problematic cases often an FE calculation is the only way to come to a solution. This calculation is usually quite complex and requires a certain amount of experience with the interpretation of the results.

We offer an integrated FE calculation for several standard problems like nozzles with external loads on cylindrical shells or domed heads.



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lso be performed according the corresponding European Standard (EN).

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